Thursday, 21 July 2011

How to kill the process running on specific port in Linux

I would like to stop the process which is running on port 8080 in a Linux server, but I don't know the process that owns it.

'lsof -w -n -i tcp:8080'


'fuser -n tcp 8080'


'netstat -anp | grep :8080[[:blank:]]'

should show you the process ID.

If there is no (init) script to use to shut down the offending service (since TCP/8080 means proxy) to kill you can by PID 'kill -9 pidnumber'.

How to send email from the Linux command line

The Linux command line can be very powerful once you know how to use it. You can parse data, monitor processes, and do a lot of other useful and cool things using it. There often comes a need to generate a report and mail it out. It could be as simple a requirement as a notification that the day’s backup went through fine, or did not. I’ll help you get started with sending mails from the Linux command line and in shell scripts. We will also cover sending attachments from the command line. We will begin with the “mail” command.


First run a quick test to make sure the “sendmail” application is installed and working correctly. Execute the following command, replacing “” with your e-mail address.

# mail -s “Hello world”

Hit the return key and you will come to a new line. Enter the text “This is a test from my server”. Follow up the text by hitting the return key again. Then hit the key combination of Control+D to continue. The command prompt will ask you if you want to mark a copy of the mail to any other address, hit Control+D again. Check your mailbox. This command will send out a mail to the email id mentioned with the subject, “Hello world”.

To add content to the body of the mail while running the command you can use the following options. If you want to add text on your own:

# echo “This will go into the body of the mail.”
mail -s “Hello world”

And if you want mail to read the content from a file:

# mail -s “Hello world” < /home/calvin/application.log

Some other useful options in the mail command are:

-s subject (The subject of the mail)

-c email-address (Mark a copy to this “email-address”, or CC)

-b email-address (Mark a blind carbon copy to this “email-address”, or BCC)

Here’s how you might use these options:

# echo “Welcome to the world of Calvin n Hobbes”
mail -s “Hello world” -c -b


One of major drawbacks of using the mail command is that it does not support the sending of attachments. mutt, on the other hand, does support it. I’ve found this feature particularly useful for scripts that generate non-textual reports or backups which are relatively small in size which I’d like to backup elsewhere. Of course, mutt allows you to do a lot more than just send attachments. It is a much more complete command line mail client than the “mail” command. Right now we’ll just explore the basic stuff we might need often. Here’s how you would attach a file to a mail:

# echo “Sending an attachment.”
mutt -a -s “attachment”

This command will send a mail to with the subject (-s) “attachment”, the body text “Sending an attachment.”, containing the attachment (-a) Like with the mail command you can use the “-c” option to mark a copy to another mail id.


Now, with the basics covered you can send mails from your shell scripts. Here’s a simple shell script that gives you a reading of the usage of space on your partitions and mails the data to you.


df -h
mail -s “disk space report”

Save these lines in a file on your Linux server and run it. You should receive a mail containing the results of the command. If, however, you need to send more data than just this you will need to write the data to a text file and enter it into the mail body while composing the mail. Here’s and example of a shell script that gets the disk usage as well as the memory usage, writes the data into a temporary file, and then enters it all into the body of the mail being sent out:


df -h > /tmp/mail_report.log

free -m >> /tmp/mail_report.log

mail -s “disk and RAM report” < /tmp/mail_report.log

Now here’s a more complicated problem. You have to take a backup of a few files and mail then out. First the directory to be mailed out is archived. Then it is sent as an email attachment using mutt. Here’s a script to do just that:


tar -zcf /tmp/backup.tar.gz /home/calvin/files

mutt -a /tmp/backup.tar.gz -s “daily backup of data”

The echo at the start of the last line adds a blank into the body of the mail being set out.

This should get you started with sending mails form the Linux command line and from shell scripts. Read up the “man page” for both mail and mutt for more options.

Thursday, 23 June 2011

How to export ipod notes to your PC computer for free?

There are few applications in the market offering this feature, but if you want to do it for free and easily, take note of how to do it:

1) You will need a PC computer with iTunes and Microsoft Outlook. Of course, you also need your ipod and the cable connected to the PC.
2) You must install Microsoft Outlook (not Outlook Express), and set it up as the default email client. You can do it temporarily if you want, and then change it back later to your favorite email client.
This is because itunes uses Microsoft Outlook as the default application to synchronize the Notes.
Go to iTunes, select your ipod under Devices, and from the tabs on top, select Info. In the section "Other" tick the option "Sync notes with: Outlook"
Do it, sync your ipod.
3) You will find all your notes in Outlook, that is the yellow sticky notes icon under "Tasks" on the left menu. Or just use the menu: Go to -> Notes.
You can start copying and pasting the contents of your notes, but if you have many of them, it is a better idea to export them to notepad, however, there is no such functionality in Outlook :(
Don't worry, go to the next step.
4) Open outlook, Alt+F11 to open VBA editor, put the following code in the right blank area, while on the vba editor, click the save button.

Sub exportNotes()
On Error GoTo huboerr
myfolder = "c:\notes\" 'change this to your folder path but folder path has to end with a backlash
Set myNote = Application.GetNamespace("MAPI").GetDefaultFolder(olFolderNotes)
For ibi = 1 To myNote.Items.Count
fname = myNote.Items(ibi).Subject
myNote.Items(ibi).SaveAs myfolder & fname & ".txt", 0

Exit Sub
MsgBox fname
Resume Next

End Sub

Then all you need to do is to change the first line of code to the path of export folder
While in vba editor, when hit F5, all the notes in the notes folder will be exported to the folder you specified, the notes name will be the same as you have in your Outlook notes and in your ipod . You will probably have to edit the note names in Outlook before exporting them, as you may name them using some special characters (*, %, etc.) that are not accepted by Windows...

I hope it saved you some time re-typing the notes in your PC, and some bucks if you were thinking about buying an application for doing that.

Enjoy !

Monday, 20 June 2011

How do I find discovered SAN targets and LUNs on a Linux host with Emulex HBA cards?

The sys file system (sysfs) provides details on what devices have been discovered.

Change directory to /sys/class/scsi_host. Perform an ls:

[tam@tsdownload scsi_host]$ ls

Each SCSI host adapter and those that look like SCSI host adapters to Linux are assigned a host number by Linux. You may see more than one hostX (where x is a number). In the example above, only one SCSI host bus adapter is found, host0. If there are more than one, perform an ls command on each:

[tam@tsdownload scsi_host]$ ls host0
[tam@tsdownload scsi_host]$ ls host0
board_online lpfc_discovery_min_wait node_name
cmd_per_lun lpfc_discovery_wait_limit nport_evt_cnt
ctlreg lpfc_drvr_version num_discovered_ports
device lpfc_fcp_bind_method option_rom_version
disc_adisc lpfc_fcp_class outfcpio
disc_map lpfc_fdmi_on portfcid
disc_npr lpfc_hba_queue_depth port_name
disc_plogi lpfc_link_speed portnum
disc_prli lpfc_linkup_wait_limit port_type
disc_reglgn lpfc_log_verbose proc_name
disc_unmap lpfc_lun_queue_depth programtype
disc_unused lpfc_max_luns scan
events lpfc_nodev_tmo serialnum
fabric_name lpfc_scan_down sg_tablesize
fwrev lpfc_topology speed
hdw lpfc_use_adisc state
host_busy management_version unchecked_isa_dma
info mbox unique_id
issue_lip modeldesc
lpfc_ack0 modelname

Any items listed with lpfc are Emulex adapters. You can check the model, firmware version, and driver version:

[tam@tsdownload host0]$ cat info
Emulex LP10000 2Gb PCI-X Fibre Channel Adapter on PCI bus 05 device 20 irq 209

[tam@tsdownload host0]$ cat lpfc_drvr_version
Emulex LightPulse Fibre Channel SCSI driver

[tam@tsdownload host0]$ cat fwrev
1.91A5 (T2D1.91A5)

Change directory to the host directory and then the device directory:

[tam@tsdownload scsi_host]$ cd host0
{tam@tsdownload host0]$ device
[tam@tsdownload device]$ ls
detach_state power target0:0:0 target0:0:1

Each target and LUN is listed as targetX:Y:Z where:
•X is the bus number
•Y is the target number
•Z is the LUN number.
These are the devices discovered by the host bus adapter and Linux SCSI midlayer.

To determine what type of devices were found, change directory to the targetX:Y:Z directory and then the X:X:X:X directory below it. You can cat the model, vendor, and other files to learn more about the devices:
[tam@tsdownload device]$ cd 0:target0:0:0
[tam@tsdownload target0:0:0]$ cd 0:0:0:0
[tam@tsdownload 0:0:0:0]$ ls
block detach_state dump power rescan scsi_level timeout vendor
delete device_blocked model queue_depth rev state type

[tam@tsdownload 0:0:0:0]$ cat model

[tam@tsdownload 0:0:0:0]$ cat vendor

[tam@tsdownload 0:0:0:0]$ cat state

The 0:0:0:0 directory represents host bus adapter 0, bus 0, target 0, LUN 0.

Original document (official Emulex web site):

Saturday, 4 June 2011

Upgrade to Vspere ESX 4.1 failed, ESX host boot stops and drops into Troubleshooting mode.

Recently, I've got this error whe upgrading an ESX host from version 4.0 to 4.1 upd 01, using the upgrade manager. I was looking to the console, after the ESX host reboot and:

ESX host boot stops at the error: VSD mount/Bin/SH:cant access TTY job control turned off

I was in panic.

Rebooting the host failed, giving me the same error.

I didn't want to re-install the host, because I had some Production Virtual Machines in the local storage, and wanted to solve it quick, as my maintenance window was almost over.

On the ESX console, you see the error:

VSD mount/bin/sh:can't access TTY; job control turned off.

The ESX host does not boot and drops into Troubleshooting (busy box) mode.

Looking into the /var/log/messages file, there was something similar to:

sysboot: Getting '/boot/cosvdmk' parameter from esx.conf

sysboot: COS VMDK Specified in esx.conf: /vmfs/volumes/4b27ec62-93ec3816-0475-00215aaf882a/esxconsole-4b27e9e3-20ee-69d7-ae11-00215aaf882a/esxconsole.vmdk

sysboot: 66.vsd-mount returned critical failure

sysboot: Executing 'chvt 1'

How to solve it:

This issue occurs if an ESX host cannot identify the esxconsole.vmdk file in which the service console resides.

1. Go to the console of the ESX host. After the error message, ESX drops into Troubleshooting (busy box) mode.

2. Find the .vmdk for the service console by running the command:

grep "/boot/cosvmdk" /etc/vmware/esx.conf

The output is similar to:

/boot/cosvmdk = "/

For example:

/boot/cosvmdk = "/vmfs/volumes/4a14d968-88bf7161-700f-00145ef48f76/esxconsole-4a14d906-2f96-7956-7284-00145ef48f74/esxconsole.vmdk"

3. Make note of the and the

4. Verify that the files exist by running the command:

ls -al /vmfs/volumes//

Where and is from the output of step 2.

The output is similar to:

total 7906560

drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 840 May 21 00:45 .

drwxr-xr-t 1 root root 2660 Oct 21 09:10 ..

-rw------- 1 root root 8095006720 Oct 26 15:37 esxconsole-flat.vmdk

-rw------- 1 root root 475 May 21 00:32 esxconsole.vmdk

drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 980 May 21 00:45 logs

5. Ensure that both the esxconsole-flat.vmdk and the esxconsole.vmdk files exist.

In my case, the esxconsole.vmdk file did not exist.

I troubleshoot using a modification to the following:

All the step in this section are important !!!

a. Identify and record the exact size of the -flat file using a command similar to:

# ls -l esxconsole-flat.vmdk

-rw------- 1 root root 4294967296 Oct 11 12:30 esxconsole-flat.vmdk

Write down this number (4294967296) it could be different in your case, it is usually 8GB !

b. Rename the file, as all the valuable data is in this file !

# mv esxconsole-flat.vmdk esxconsole-flat_ORIG.vmdk

c. Use the vmkfstools command to create a new virtual disk:

# vmkfstools -c 4294967296 -a buslogic esxconsole.vmdk

Remember to use buslogic as the bus type.

d. Rename the new blank created disk file esxconsole-flat.vmdk

# mv esxconsole-flat.vmdk esxconsole-flat_BLANK.vmdk

e. Rename the old console disk to the new file

# mv esxconsole-flat_ORIG.vmdk esxconsole-flat.vmdk

Type exit, or reboot the ESX server.

You will be able to boot the server normally.

Later, you can delete the file esxconsole-flat_BLANK.vmdk

Problem solved !


If the esxconsole-flat file does not exist in step 5, you must re-install the ESX host to recreate the service console.

Original VMware KBs:

values in the output.

Friday, 6 May 2011

Vsphere ESX NIC numbering

VMware had an issue with the nics port numbering. If you have on board nics, and some PCIe nics, the numbering is not correct. With HP server and Broadband and Intel adapter it happens.


It pretty much assigns them in whatever order it finds them - you can see this article ( for a rundown on the process. Now if you are really dead set on changing them it can be done. You would have to:


You can change the numbering by changing the esx.conf


1. go into the console (tech support mode on ESXi)

2. cd /etc/vmware

3. backup your esx.conf

                eg. cp esx.conf esx.conf.bak

4. edit esx.conf and look for your vmnic entries.. will look something like

     /device/000:001:00.0/vmkname = "vmnic0"

     /device/000:001:00.1/vmkname = "vmnic1"

     /device/000:002:00.0/vmkname = "vmnic2"

     /device/000:002:00.1/vmkname = "vmnic3"

5. Order as desired by editing the string vmnicX

6. Look for mac address assignment to vmnicX and change them accordingly, change the lines for the mac "xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx" and virtualmac "yy:yy:yy:yy:yy:yy" to be consistent. Don't change just the "vmnicX", leave everything in the same place.


                /net/pnic/child[000X]/mac/ = "xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx"

                /net/pnic/child[000X]/name/ = "vmnicX"

                /net/pnic/child[000X]/virtualmac/ = "yy:yy:yy:yy:yy:yy"


7. Save the edited file and reboot


You may have to readjust your nic bindings in networking in the Virtual Center when done.


For many implementations, the numbering is not an issue, but for a correct design (using nic port to a specific Switch port) and validate the cabling the right numbering is important. The use of host profiles is standardized, including the nic names, which makes things easier to maintain with less efforts.


Example: We use vmnic0 and vmnic5 for service console and vmkernel for iscsi, and vmnic1 and vmnic4 for Virtual Machines Data, if the numbering is not correct, you can use the same nic/port for High Availability, if you have a nic problem, both nics/ports can be the some physical port, and you have no vmkernel, or Service Console


This is just an example what can happen if you have your infrastructure very well documented, and the correct design for High Availability on all connections.


I hope It is useful for you as it was for me !

Thursday, 20 January 2011

VMware vcenter server migration from 4.0 to 4.1

VMwAre Vcenter server is used for maintaining the esx servers from a centralized place with user permission and cluster creation and the licensing issues.

New version 4.1 MUST be installed on a Windows 64 bit OS computer.

I migrated it from an old server to a new one, so I had to proceed with a migration.

While migrating from 4.0 to 4.1, we need to follow these steps for getting old database converted to new format, as it is different from 4.0 to 4.1.


Before migration, the following services of vcenter should be stopped

VMware VirtualCenter Server

VMware VirtualCenter Management Webservices

VMware vCenter Update Manager Service


Mount the vcenter ISO image or load the bunt DVD in the old vcenter server machine. Open the cd and copy the Datamigration folder to C:\Datamigration

Extract all the file in the same folder.

IMPORTANT: Verify that you have at least 8 GB of available space, as many configuration files will be copied to C: drive.



Navigate to C:\Datamigration\ and run backup.bat , the script will backup all configuration settings from your recent vCenter installation and database. (Software builds, used ports, database information, server names and VUM Settings/Patches etc.).. once finished all the important data is stored in C:\Datamigration\Data\
If there are any errors while making the backup… check this and fix before you go further!
Now you need to copy the C:\Databasemigration\ folder to your new planned vCenter 4.1 server. You can do this by share, copy this on USB stick or whatever.

Migrate the database and install vCenter 4.1:
- Login to the new vCenter server;
- Mount the new VMware vCenter Server 4.1 and modules
Open CMD:

- Navigate to C:\Data migration\ and run install.bat. The script will check if the correct data is present..

If you used a different name for your new vCenter server press Yes.. to continue

Then you must select the vCenter 4.1 and VUM installation source. In my case the mounted ISO has drive letter F:\

The configuration will be validated, correct ports numbers, vCenter serial number etc.. all good..

.. The vCenter Installation is started

I already installed a Microsoft SQL 2005 Enterprise server (local) and created a 32 bit ODBC connection, THEN select "vCenter41" DSN

If needed, give the correct credentials


You can modify this later, please check: for more information



- I changed the installation path to D:\Program Files\VMware\Infrastructure\ .. default location is C:\..\.






Oke, the installation was not so difficult. After clicking finish the install.bat will continue with the VMware Update Manager database migration and installation.

VMware Update Manager – Database migration and installation software:

As you can see "vCenter Server migration installed completed successfully" great

The install.bat script will continue and check again if the selected VUM ports are available and if the copied data migratable is for the new VUM database location






 For VMware Update Manager you need to create a 64-Bit DSN. You can create this here: C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe .. oke, thats done.. select the VUM (already created before installation) database.





The installation and patch download location is by default C:\.. I prefer to install this data on a separate disk.. so I changed the installation path to D:\…\.. 




Now you can connect your vCenter server and manage your hosts and VM's.. sometimes you can't!

Tip before connect the vCenter:

- Reboot your new vCenter 4.1 server;

- On the ESX host: Restart your management services: service mgmt-vmware restart

- On the ESX host: Use a text editor to view/change the IP address inside the tags the following file:/etc/opt/vmware/vpxa/vpxa.cfg

Finally result:




Successful migration process of vCenter 4.0 to new 4.1 server.